Month: November 2010

NIC Bonding In Linux

Nic bonding is defined as bonding of two or more network cards on a server/pc to form a parallel single connection. This is a great way of achieving redundancy to a server if its having more number of network cards. Its having many names like. 1. Link aggregation 2. Channel Bonding 3. NIC Bonding 4. NIC teaming 5. Network card Bonding 6. Ethernet bonding 7. Trunking 8. Etherchannel 9. Multi-link truning(MLT) 10.Network bonding 11.Network Fault Tolerance(NFT) 12.Port channel 13.Smartgroup 14.EtherTrunk   Nic bonding is used to provide two benefits for us 1. High bandwidth 2. Redundancy/resilience Before Clustering softwares come in to existing this technique is widely used to provide redundancy to a high end server. After cluster software introduced its used to enhance the cluster redundancy. In this post we will see how can we achieve Nic bonding. Nic bonding will work with the help of bonding driver in kernel.           Implementing NIC bonding : Participating interfaces.     eth0 eth1 bnd0 Step1 : Create bond interface file with following content in it vi /etc/syconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bnd0 DEVICE=bnd0 IPADDR= NETWORK= NETMASK=     USERCTL=no BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes GATEWAY= save and exit the file Step2 : Now create a bnd0 virtual interface in modprobe.conf as shown below alias bnd0 bonding options bnd0 miimon=100 mode=6 Save and exit the file Let me explain what actually the above two lines...

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Failed To Make Swap Directory Cache (13) Permission Denied

When installing squid as cache server you have to create cache folder with “squid -z” command with out quotes. But when you are trying this you will see /usr/local/squid/sbin# ./squid -z2010/04/29 22:39:16Creating Swap DirectoriesFATAL : Failed to make swap directory /usr/local/squid/var/cache: (13) Permission deniedSquid Cache (Version 2.5.STABLE5) : Terminated abnormally. CPU Usage : 0.000 seconds = 0.000 user + 0.000 sysThis is due to that /usr/local/squid/var/cache folder is not owned by effective user. To resolve this issue follow below steps Step1 : Create squid user(A normal user) if the squid user is not there #useradd squidStep2 : Specify the effective user entry in squid.conf file with squid as username by editing it. #vi /usr/local/squid/etc/squid.conf change the entry from # cache_effective_user nousertocache_effective_user squid Save the file now Step3 : Now change the ownership of the cache folder to squid user #chown -R squid.squid /usr/local/squid/var/cacheStep4 : Now create cache directory with squid -z command #squid -zNow you will be out of issue. Please visit for more linux admin...

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How To Change The Date In Linux?

How can we change the date/time in linux?Ans : Changing date in linux is bit confusing. If you want to change date in GUI its very much easy and if you want to change it when it comes to CLI its bit hard to remember it.Date is the command to check whats the present date#date To change the date use below command#date MM => Two digit month value DD => Two digit day value HH => Two digit hour value MM => Two digit minuite value YYYY => Four digit year value ss => Two digit seconds value(very rare we will be using this) Example1 : I want to change the date to Nov 24 1:36 PM 2010 #date 112413362010 Example2 : I want to change the date to Jan 9th 8:05.04 AM 2010 #date 010908052010.04 Now the date will be changed to your required date. Please visit for more linux admin...

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How To Set A PHP Path In Linux?

How can we set PHP path in linux?Ans : When you install PHP and host some .php files on webserver your web server will not detect it. This is because your Apache server does not know how to interprit PHP files? And and where is php located? To eleminate this issue we have to set the php path in main php configuration file php.ini located in your machine. As the linux is open source and the location of this file differs from different flavors, so better option is to search for php.ini file as shown below. find / -iname php.inior some common locations for Redhat and Ubuntu are shown belowFor Redhat flavors /etc/php.iniFor Ubuntu Flavors/etc/php5/apache2/php.iniTo search for include_path and uncomment that before changes. ;include_path = “.:/usr/share/php” After changes. include_path = “.:/usr/share/php”Now save and exit the file. And you have to restart the apache server to detect this settings. For Redhat #service httpd restart For Ubuntu /etc/init.d/apache2 restart Now start coding in PHP and enjoy the php scripting. Please visit for more linux admin...

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