This is the first part of the series on python built-in functions. In this tutorial we will present **any() **and **all() **built-ins. Both these functions serve to analyze the content of a sequence when applying a specific condition/requirement.

### 1. any(*sequence*)

**any()** function is used to check if at least one element of a sequence fulfills a given condition, i.e. returns *“True”*. Eg.:

>>>any ( [ True ] )True >>>any ( [ True, True, True ] )True >>>any ( [ True, True, False ] )True >>>z = [ 10, 20, 30 ]>>>any ( [ x > 10 for x in z ] )True >>>any ( [ x > 50 for x in z ] )False >>>

In order to make a good use of this function you need to know the return value of different types in python. For example, all numbers except 0 return *True:*

>>>z = [ 0, 0, 0.01, 0 ]>>>any ( z )True >>>z = [ 0, 0, 0, 0 ]>>>any ( z )False

Strings, apart the empty string, return *True*:

>>>any( [ 0, 0, "0", 0 ] )True >>>any ( [ 0, 0, "", 0 ] )False

Empty sequences and None type are always *False*. Be careful! A sequence containing zeros, empty strings or other “False” types is not empty and consequently returns *True*:

>>>any ( [ [ ], ( ), { }, None, 0 ] )False >>>any ( [ [0], ( ), { }, None, 0 ] )True >>>

### all(*sequence*)

**all() **function is used to check if **all (!!!)** elements of a sequence fulfill a given condition, i.e. return *“True”*. Eg.

>>>all ( [ True, True, True ] )True >>>all ( [ True, True, False ] )False >>>z = [ 10, 20, 30 ]>>>all ( [ x>10 for x in z ] )False >>>all ( [ x>5 for x in z ] )True >>>

Like with *any()* examples above, be careful with empty/non empty sequences and remember that some types always return *False*:

>>>all ( [ " ", "0", [0], "None" ] )# space is a character, the string is not empty True >>>all( [ "", "0", [0], "None" ] )False >>>

NB! An empty sequence returns True for ** all()** and False for

**:**

*any()*>>>all ( [ ] )True >>>any ( [ ] )False

That’s it ðŸ™‚

Please check out Part 2 of this tutorial where we take a closer look at **type()** and **instanceof()** functions. Till then!

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